Tuberculosis is a global epidemic that annually accounts for more than 3 million deaths worldwide. Because of the capacity of M. tuberculosis to establish a latent infection, an estimated 2 billion people worldwide are infected with M. tuberculosis. Immunodeficiency caused by malnutrition, old age or HIV infection enhances development of active disease, either from a primary infection or more likely from reactivation of a latent infection. However, the environmental cues responsible for initiating latent infection in the host are not clearly understood. We previously showed that the gas carbon monoxide (CO) produced by host macrophages triggers a dormancy response in mycobacteria mediated by a bacterial two-component system. We also showed that carbon monoxide is well tolerated by mycobacteria, suggesting that mycobacteria can resist CO toxicity, and further have recently discovered a novel gene in M. tuberculosis that affords such resistance. We are currently characterizing the role of this gene in CO resistance, including its precise biochemical mechanism, interacting partners, metabolic effects and role in pathogenesis. Furthermore, we are identifying additional CO resistance genes and characterizing their functions and role in pathogenesis.
In addition to studying the role of carbon monoxide in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis, we are broadly interested in the metabolic and physiologic adaptations of M. tuberculosis during latency. Because successful M. tuberculosis infection occurs as a consequence of complex interactions with the host, we also are studying unique cellular and immunologic responses of the host that facilitate M. tuberculosis survival. Our hope is to identify novel microbial and host factors that can be inhibited or modulated to improve the treatment or prevention of tuberculosis.
- Medical School
- Cornell University Medical College (2001)
- University of California, San Francisco (2003), Internal Medicine
- University of California at San Francisco (2007), Infectious Diseases
- Innate immune response to intracellular pathogens
- Microbial pathogenesis
- Mucosal immunology
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Role of carbon monoxide (CO) in host-pathogen interactions
- A baculovirus-conjugated mimotope vaccine targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan.
- Shin HJ, Franco LH, Nair VR, Collins AC, Shiloh MU PLoS ONE 2017 12 10 e0185945
- Mechanisms of mycobacterial transmission: how does Mycobacterium tuberculosis enter and escape from the human host.
- Shiloh MU Future Microbiol 2016 Dec 11 1503-1506
- The Ubiquitin Ligase Smurf1 Functions in Selective Autophagy of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Anti-tuberculous Host Defense.
- Franco LH, Nair VR, Scharn CR, Xavier RJ, Torrealba JR, Shiloh MU, Levine B Cell Host Microbe 2016 Dec
- Microfold Cells Actively Translocate Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Initiate Infection.
- Nair VR, Franco LH, Zacharia VM, Khan HS, Stamm CE, You W, Marciano DK, Yagita H, Levine B, Shiloh MU Cell Rep 2016 Jul
- Heme Oxygenase-1 Regulates Inflammation and Mycobacterial Survival in Human Macrophages during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.
- Scharn CR, Collins AC, Nair VR, Stamm CE, Marciano DK, Graviss EA, Shiloh MU J. Immunol. 2016 Jun 196 11 4641-9
- Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Is an Innate Immune DNA Sensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- Collins AC, Cai H, Li T, Franco LH, Li XD, Nair VR, Scharn CR, Stamm CE, Levine B, Chen ZJ, Shiloh MU Cell Host Microbe 2015 Jun
- cor, a Novel Carbon Monoxide Resistance Gene, Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis.
- Zacharia VM, Manzanillo PS, Nair VR, Marciano DK, Kinch LN, Grishin NV, Cox JS, Shiloh MU MBio 2013 4 6
- Sensing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and consequences to both host and bacillus.
- Stamm CE, Collins AC, Shiloh MU Immunol. Rev. 2015 Mar 264 1 204-19
- EBV-driven HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma causing profound lactic acidosis.
- Prokesch BC, Shiloh MU Blood 2014 Aug 124 6 842
- The ubiquitin ligase parkin mediates resistance to intracellular pathogens.
- Manzanillo PS, Ayres JS, Watson RO, Collins AC, Souza G, Rae CS, Schneider DS, Nakamura K, Shiloh MU, Cox JS Nature 2013 Sep 501 7468 512-6
Honors & Awards
- Burroughs Wellcome Fund Investigator in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases
- The Department of Internal Medicine Chairs Pilot Awards
A Synthetic Lethal Genetic Interaction Map in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (2015-2017)
- UTSW High Impact/High Risk Award
Research award for development of a novel M. tuberculosis vaccine (2012)
- Disease Oriented Clinical Scholar, UTSW
- NIH/NIAID K08 award
- Sandler Family Foundation Discovery Award
Research award for highly innovative research (2006)
- Giannini Family Foundation Research Fellowship, 2005-2008
Honors research fellows in the state of California (2005)
- American Association of Immunologists (2014)
- American Society of Microbiology (2013)
- Infectious Disease Society of America (2010)