Dr. Gerald Greil studied medicine in Regensburg, Munich, Germany, at Oxford in London, UK, in Boston and San Francisco, and in Sweden (Lund). He got his degree in Pediatrics, Pediatric Intensive Care, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology from the University of Tüebingen, Germany and did a Senior Fellowship in Pediatric Cardiac MRI at Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School in Boston. Since November 2006 Dr. Greil has been a Consultant at Evelina Children’s Hospital (Guy’s & St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust) in London, UK and Clinical Lead of the Congenital Cardiac MRI Imaging Service. He was affiliated with King’s College London, where he was working as a clinical academic.

Part of his research is diagnostic and interventional cardiac MRI in patients with acquired and congenital heart disease using XMR systems. In this setting, 3D datasets (echocardiography, MRI or MDCT) are used for image fusion for diagnostic, electrophysiology and interventional cardiac catheterization procedures. Also invasive pressure data and non-invasive imaging data are combined for precise assessment of the cardiovascular system. For assessment of ventricular function, Dr. Greil also used reduced data acquisition methods (e.g. kt-BLAST). Dr. Greil focuses on vascular imaging of the lumen and vessel wall including the coronary arteries using new contrast agents, 32 channel coil technology and high field MRI technology. He is implementing these basic science developments into clinical practice, for example, in patients with Kawasaki disease. Currently there is a close cooperation with Great Ormond Street Hospital London to evaluate novel imaging technologies for non-invasive assessment of the cardiovascular system including imaging of the coronary artery lumen and vessel wall for improved follow-up of patients after heart transplantation.

In collaboration with other institutions (DKFZ Heidelberg, Germany and the Cardiac Registry, Children’s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA) Dr. Greil used high resolution 3D images of the heart and great vessels including multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) datasets for 3D virtual and real stereolithographic reconstructions of rare congenital heart defects for teaching, clinical use and research. These datasets were implemented in novel techniques such as virtual surgery. MDCT has been investigated for special indications (e.g. pulmonary vascular blood supply in patients with pulmonary atresia) as part of Dr. Greil’s research. Currently Dr. Greil is investigating with MRI cardiovascular morphology and function as well as the water-fat distribution within the human body in twins in cooperation with the Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology Department, King's College London, to assess the influence of environmental and genetic risk factors of cardiovascular disease.


Medical School
Technical University of Munich (1994)
German Heart Center Munich (1995), Pediatric Cardiology
University Children's Hospital Tubingen (1998), Pediatrics
Children's Hospital of Boston (2001), Cardiac Advanced Imaging
University Children's Hospital Tubingen (2006), Pediatric Cardiology
Other Post Graduate Training
University of Tubingen (2006), Pediatrics

Specialty Areas

Clinical Interest

  • Acquired Heart Disease in Children
  • Congential Heart Disease in Children
  • Pediatric Cardiac Computed Tomography (CT)
  • Pediatric Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Research Interest

    • Improved diagnosis in patients with acquired and congenital heart disease (CHD) using contrast agents
    • Interventional Cardiac MRI, MRI hybrid laboratories (XMR) and MRI compatible catheter material
    • Magnetic Resonance Coronary Angiography (MRCA)
    • Morphology and function assessed by whole heart imaging
    • Patient-specific cardiovascular modeling and simulation
    • The use of Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCTP) in patients with acquired and congenital heart disease
    • Virtual and real reproductions of heart specimens/virtual surgery


    Featured Publications LegendFeatured Publications

    A clinical combined gadobutrol bolus and slow infusion protocol enabling angiography, inversion recovery whole heart, and late gadolinium enhancement imaging in a single study.
    Tandon A, James L, Henningsson M, Botnar RM, Potersnak A, Greil GF, Hussain T J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2016 Oct 18 1 66
    Use of a semi-automated cardiac segmentation tool improves reproducibility and speed of segmentation of contaminated right heart magnetic resonance angiography.
    Tandon A, Byrne N, Nieves Velasco Forte ML, Zhang S, Dyer AK, Dillenbeck JM, Greil GF, Hussain T Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2016 May
    Validation of a new t2* algorithm and its uncertainty value for cardiac and liver iron load determination from MRI magnitude images.
    Bidhult S, Xanthis CG, Liljekvist LL, Greil G, Nagel E, Aletras AH, Heiberg E, Hedström E Magn Reson Med 2016 Apr 75 4 1717-29
    Coronary MR angiography at 3T: fat suppression versus water-fat separation.
    Nezafat M, Henningsson M, Ripley DP, Dedieu N, Greil G, Greenwood JP, Börnert P, Plein S, Botnar RM MAGMA 2016 Apr
    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance: Diagnostic utility and specific considerations in the pediatric population.
    Mitchell FM, Prasad SK, Greil GF, Drivas P, Vassiliou VS, Raphael CE World J Clin Pediatr 2016 Feb 5 1 1-15
    Whole-heart coronary MR angiography using image-based navigation for the detection of coronary anomalies in adult patients with congenital heart disease.
    Henningsson M, Hussain T, Vieira MS, Greil GF, Smink J, Ensbergen GV, Beck G, Botnar RM J Magn Reson Imaging 2015 Oct
    Automatic T2* determination for quantification of iron load in heart and liver: a comparison between automatic inline Maximum Likelihood Estimate and the truncation and offset methods.
    Hedström E, Voigt T, Greil G, Schaeffter T, Nagel E Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2015 Oct
    Magnetic resonance imaging catheter stress haemodynamics post-Fontan in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
    Pushparajah K, Wong JK, Bellsham-Revell HR, Hussain T, Valverde I, Bell A, Tzifa A, Greil G, Simpson JM, Kutty S, Razavi R Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2015 Jul
    Thoracic but not abdominal phase contrast magnetic resonance-derived aortic pulse wave velocity is elevated in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.
    Abbas A, Cecelja M, Hussain T, Greil G, Modarai B, Waltham M, Chowienczyk PJ, Smith A J. Hypertens. 2015 Feb
    Technical and anatomical factors affecting the size of the branch pulmonary arteries following first-stage Norwood palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
    Nassar MS, Bertaud S, Goreczny S, Greil G, Austin CB, Salih C, Anderson D, Hussain T Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2015 Feb


    Featured Books Legend Featured Books

    Honors & Awards

    • Local Clinical Excellence Award (LCEA)
      Guy's & St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (2014)
    • Local Clinical Excellence Award (LCEA)
      Guy's & St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (2011)

    Professional Associations/Affiliations

    • Editorial Board, European Heart Journal, Cardiovascular Imaging (2011)
    • Association of European Pediatric Cardiology (AEPC) (2008)
    • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Paediatrische Kardiologie (DGPK) (2008)
    • Pool of Scientific Advisors on Risk Assessment of European Union (2008)
    • Society of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) (2008)
    • Royal College of Physicians (MRCP) (2007)